Architectural and Civil Engineering
Department was responsible for development of the BBC's buildings, masts and
towers. It was based in Henry Wood House, Portland Place, and worked
closely with the Capital Projects Departments. I had very little
experience of ACED and would particularly appreciate help with this section
of the web site please.
Site Acquisition Section
The BBC's original television network used the Very High Frequency band
and relatively few transmitter sites were needed to provide a service to
most of the UK population. In 1964 BBC television broadcasting started
on the Ultra High Frequency band and, due to the nature of radio-wave
propagation at these higher frequencies, many more transmitter sites were
needed. Land had to be found and acquired at suitable locations, so
Site Acquisition Section was formed to carry out this work.
Organisationally, SAS was part of Transmitter Operations but functionally it
delivered the first link in the chain which ultimately resulted in each new
transmitting station coming on air.
SAS was involved in all BBC transmitter site finding. As well as
large numbers of UHF television sites, there were VHF and MF radio sites for
Network and Local Radio services.
Each UHF site had to broadcast both BBC and ITA services so it was agreed
that each organisation would acquire about half the total number of sites.
Once the site was acquired, the landlord (BBC or Independent Television
Authority) provided the accommodation and common infrastructure (e.g. mast)
and the tenant (ITA or BBC) installed equipment specific to their services.
By 1997, when BBC Transmission was privatised, it had 734 sites* and
access to a further 550 sites provided by NTL (formerly ITA and then IBA -
Independent Broadcasting Authority). The BBC sites included those used
for radio services, as well as television.
*Not including transmitting stations for World Service.
Recollections of Site Acquisition Section - By George Bath
These notes are not precise but are merely recollections to, hopefully,
start the ball rolling. Thus amendments and additions, from anyone involved,
past or present, are very welcome!
History and Office Locations.
Site Acquisition Section was formed as part of Transmitter Department in
1964 based in BH London. The small team comprised Maurice Clough (HSAS),
Colin White, Alex Rothney and L P Tinson ? (later Head of Valve Section).
They moved offices to The Langham a year or so later and Jim Moon joined as
an additional Site Finder. During this period Maurice Clough moved on and
Jim Moon became HSAS. Colin White left to go abroad and Malcolm Harman
joined the Section.
The Team moved offices again to Harewood House, Hanover Square, in 1972.
Malcolm Harman returned to Research Department and George Bath joined.
Luxurious accommodation, large offices, floor length curtains and balconies!
In addition to the Site Finders, a Site Engineer was appointed to check
reception, for re-broadcast purposes, at proposed sites. John Hawkins, Tony
Glasier and Mick Benns held this position at various times. From early days
using a long wheelbase Land Rover they progressed to a Mercedes Unimog
vehicle which allowed direct access to the more remote locations. The
vehicle had a built in 30 foot mast raised by compressed air.
The Harewood House lease expired and the Section moved to more modest
premises at Bentinck House, Bolsover Street in 1977. The pace was now
hotting up and additional Site Finders were required, Graham Barrell, Ian
Baker, Doug fisher and Robert Foster. Jim Moon retired and Peter Cleminson
became HSAS. Another lease expiry in 1980 saw the Section move to Henry Wood
House in Regent Street. There were also organisational changes and HSAS
became Head of Engineering Transmitter Support Services. Site Finders were
required to complete 12 to 15 new acquisitions a year to keep pace with the
UHF Relay rollout programme.
London as a base came to an end in 1987 with the move to Warwick
Technology Park and Peter Mensforth was appointed as Section Head. As the
rate of need for the new sites decreased the job took on a more “Estate
Management” role and also Site Sharing became a more important source of
Site Acquisition Section
By Alex Rothney 9/05/09
The Transmitter Engineering Department [later renamed Transmitter Group]
has always had the responsibility of acquiring the sites for BBC
transmitting stations, in co-operation with the transmitter installation,
and building and legal departments.
This was true with the enormous increase of sites needed to fulfil the
changeover from VHF to UHF. Far more stations were required because the
coverage from a UHF transmitter is very much less than from a VHF
transmitter of the same power.
To cope for the extra work, a new section was created, Site Acquisition
Section. Initially it had three senior engineers, two junior engineers and
two secretaries, but later another senior engineer, two more secretaries and
an office clerk were added.
An innovation was that there was an agreement that the BBC and the ITA
would share all the UHF stations. SAS would acquire sites for half of the
stations, and an equivalent new section in the ITA would acquire the
remainder. Each body would provide its own transmitting equipment, but the
aerial system and transmitter building for both would be provided by the
body acquiring the site. The UK was divided up into areas for each
The BBC Research Department decided where the transmitters should be
One of the SAS Senior Engineers was Head of Section and he would decided
who would deal with each RD recommendation. The site engineer would then
arrange to visit the proposed site, usually using his own car, or a hire
car. With distant sites sometimes the journey could be made by rail or air
and hire car. On the first visit a field strength meter and portable aerial
would have to taken, along with maps, a camera, a compass, binoculars and
perhaps an altimeter, (Wot! No Satnav?) hence the need for car transport.
The RD recommended site would be located, and an initial judgment made.
It might have been built over, or be at the end of an airport runway, etc
One example is where there was a small hill between the proposed site and
the area to be served, but this did not appear on the O.S. map because the
top of the hill had not penetrated the next contour boundary.
If the site was considered suitable, its ownership had to be found, and
negotiations started. If they failed, a search would be made for an
alternative. A purchase was preferred, otherwise a long lease with a right
to renew. All would be subject to satisfactory reception and planning
consent, and also approved by the Director of Engineering, which was
virtually automatic. Photographs were taken of the site and access.
The planning authority needed to be sounded out. If all went well the
site finder returned to base and arranged for full reception tests on the
site, carried out by the junior engineers with, originally, a Land-Rover
with a telescopic mast and measuring equipment. There must be high quality
reception from a parent station. Later SAS was equipped with a Mercedes
Unimog, a larger and more effective cross country vehicle.
An “Event 20” document, giving full details of the site was then produced
and copies sent to Research Department, Transmitter Planning & Installation
Department, Building Department, the BBC Solicitor and the ITA,. Also, an
Application for Outline Planning Consent was made by the site finder.
In the event of planning consent being refused, an application would be
made for a Planning Inquiry. The site finder would become the expert
witness, and a barrister appointed.
Occasionally site finders attended public meetings to explain BBC needs.
Monthly progress reports on each site were issued to all concerned
Site Acquisition Section became so successful that its services were
sought in acquiring facilities for setting up other radio facilities, such
as finding sites for local radio transmitting stations or direct point to
point radio links, and other matters concerning land such matters of rights
of way at Rampisham, which resulted in a public inquiry with a satisfactory
Radio users, other than BBC, often applied for aerial space on BBC aerial
masts and towers. Provided Building Dept gave its approval to the mast/tower
loading, SAS negotiated the terms.
When Libya decided to have a television service in 1965, it sought
guidance from the BBC. BBC engineers were involved in all aspects of
training and construction work, including an SAS site finder being sent out
to establish sites for several high power and low power TV transmitting
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